2009 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this Grant is to provide USDA, ARS, WHNRC Scientists with expertise and resources to conduct human studies to examine the effects of diet on molecular and functional biomarkers of nutrition and health. Research issues to be addressed include the following:.
1)the role of various types of energy restricted diets or dietary patterns on fuel metabolism, appetite, and body composition;.
2)impact of dietary components on the development of biological risk factors for chronic disease; and.
3)the role of nutrition in development of immunological function and maintaining a healthy immune system.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The grant is specific for enhancing our ability to conduct human clinical metabolic studies. The University of California will provide clinical investigators, physicians, nurses, dietitians and provide support for the conduct of research protocols in their areas of expertise. Support under this grant will include placement of intravenous catheters for blood drawing and infusions, biopsies of adipose, muscle or gastrointestinal tissue for measurements of endpoints, use of endoscopes for visualization, and nuclear magnetic imaging for tracing metabolic pathways. Medical and dietary expertise will include physicians who are board-certified in endocrinology or gastroenterology, research nurses or technicians with specialized training in selected clinical procedures, research dietitians and metabolic kitchen personnel, and professional staff with experience in volunteer recruitment and study coordination. The WHNRC would also have access to core analytical facilities and scientific expertise to the research effort. Documents Grant with UC Davis.
During FY09, personnel employed include a Human Studies Manager, nurse, physiologist, phlebotomists, research dietitians, metabolic kitchen personnel, recruiter, and data manager. WHNRC scientists receive access to techniques and expertise required for human investigations. Examples include assistance with protocol submission, scheduling and organizing study support; recruiting, screening and evaluation of volunteers; diet design, menu development, and meal production; dietary assessment, blood drawing, metabolic testing, and database management.
Seventeen research studies have been supported. Four studies (#14-17) were led by a UC Davis Principal Investigator. Recruiters maintained five telephone lines and contacted about 100 volunteers per month on average for all studies. The staff conducted about 210 health screening visits and enrolled about 70 volunteers into studies. Study protocols vary from one visit to multiple visits over several months for tests and meals. Nursing/phlebotomy staff performed more than 1,100 blood draws. The Principal Dietitian developed more than 100 menus. Kitchen staff produced more than 8,000 study meals. The physiologist completed metabolic and exercise testing for multiple studies. The data manager managed data storage in the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) which currently houses data on 25 research studies and nearly 12,000 subject samples. The following studies were supported in FY2009:
1. A Pilot Study to Determine the Safety, Dose Response and Metabolism of Citrus Limonoids in Hypercholesterolemic Human Subjects )
2. Evaluating the Health Benefits of Physical Activity Recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines
3. Bone Turnover Markers Following Short Term Vitamin B-12 Supplementation
4. The Role of Dairy Foods in Fat Loss and Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults
5. Development of Food-Bound, Non-Radioactive Tests to Detect Vitamin B-12 Malabsorption
6. Human lycopene and beta-cryptoxanthin absorption from citrus fruits
7. Behavioral and motivational determinants of unhealthy nutrition practices
8. Vit B12 Bioavailability from Eggs
9. Identification of muscle-specific biomarkers of fatty acid beta-oxidation
10. Cobalamin Absorption from Fortified Food in Older Adults with Atrophic Gastritis
11. The Impact of Eating Breakfast on Food Intake Behaviors and Food Choice
12. Does exposure to whole grains increase consumer liking and acceptability?
13. Barriers and facilitators to following he Dietary Guidelines (HEALTH Study) (Multicenter study)
14. CCRC: The metabolic effects of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages for two weeks
15. Validating Methods for Assessing Vitamin D Status in Different Ancestry Groups
16. Interactions of lipoproteins with the artery wall
17. Health Assessment through Individual Lipid Pathway Phenotyping
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