2011 Annual Report
1a.Objectives (from AD-416)
The objective of this Grant is to provide USDA, ARS, WHNRC Scientists with expertise and resources to conduct human studies to examine the effects of diet on molecular and functional biomarkers of nutrition and health. Research issues to be addressed include the following:.
1)the role of various types of energy restricted diets or dietary patterns on fuel metabolism, appetite, and body composition;.
2)impact of dietary components on the development of biological risk factors for chronic disease; and.
3)the role of nutrition in development of immunological function and maintaining a healthy immune system.
1b.Approach (from AD-416)
The grant is specific for enhancing our ability to conduct human clinical metabolic studies. The University of California will provide clinical investigators, physicians, nurses, dietitians and provide support for the conduct of research protocols in their areas of expertise. Support under this grant will include placement of intravenous catheters for blood drawing and infusions, biopsies of adipose, muscle or gastrointestinal tissue for measurements of endpoints, use of endoscopes for visualization, and nuclear magnetic imaging for tracing metabolic pathways. Medical and dietary expertise will include physicians who are board-certified in endocrinology or gastroenterology, research nurses or technicians with specialized training in selected clinical procedures, research dietitians and metabolic kitchen personnel, and professional staff with experience in volunteer recruitment and study coordination. The WHNRC would also have access to core analytical facilities and scientific expertise to the research effort. Documents Grant with UC Davis. Formerly 5306-51530-016-02G (5/09).
Personnel included 1 Human Studies Manager, 1 physiologist, 2 phlebotomists, 2 research dietitians, 2 kitchen personnel, and 1 recruiter. Agreement provides ARS scientists support for human studies such as assistance with Institutional Review Board (IRB) applications; scheduling/organizing study support; recruiting/screening of subjects; diet design, menu development & meal production; diet assessment; blood drawing; and database management. Studies supported in FY11 include 18 led by ARS Principal Investigators and 8 led by UC Davis Prinical Investigators with ARS Co-principal Investigators.
1. Bone turnover markers following short term vitamin B-12 supplementation.
2. Behavioral and motivational determinants of unhealthy nutrition practices.
3. Identification of muscle-specific biomarkers of fatty acid beta-oxidation.
4. Cobalamin absorption from fortified food in older adults with atrophic gastritis.
5. The impact of eating breakfast on food intake behaviors and food choice.
6. Evaluating liking, acceptability and health benefits of grain products. Ongoing.
7. Barriers and facilitators to following the dietary guidelines (HEALTH Study) (Multicenter study.
8. Anti-inflammatory activities of grapes in humans at risk for cardiovascular disease.
9. Influence of stress on appetitive brain responses to food cues.
10. Antigen specific T-cell response to tetanus vaccination.
11. Effect of consumption of post-harvest UVB treated mushrooms on vitamin D status.
12. Assessment of vitamin D supplementation and immune function.
13. Vitamin A equivalence of carotenoids from cassava in women.
14. Effect of menstrual cycle hormone changes on eating behavior and nutrient metabolism.
15. Milk and yogurt vs. Ca and vitamin D supplements for bone health of women.
16. Relationship between executive function and nutritional behavior in preschoolers.
17. Effects of ingesting MSG on energy balance and eating behavior following energy restriction and weight loss in women.
18. Does blueberry intake alleviate postprandial lipemia-induced inflammation and consequent alteration in neural activity?
19. CCRC: The metabolic effects of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages for two weeks.
20. Interactions of lipoproteins with the artery wall.
21. Assessment of inflammatory markers and pregnancy outcomes in vitamin D supplemented women at risk of vitamin D deficiency: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
22. Behavioral determinants of body weight management for rural obese and normal-weight children.
23. CCRC: Fish oil to prevent asthma exacerbations in patients with ALOX5 polymorphisms.
24. Efficacy of obesity risk assessment tools integrated with parental guided goal setting to maintain healthy weight among preschool children.
25. Piloting tools for personalized health monitoring.
26. Development of food-bound, non-radioactive tests to detect vitamin B-12 mal-absorption.
Project monitoring was accomplished through regular meetings, emails and telephone calls.